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金融市场英文ppt

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Financial English Finance Part One Money and Economics Chapter 1 Money 章节结构 Learning Objectives(学习目标) Key Topics(关键点) Text(阅读课文) Notes(课文注释) Exercises(课后练习) Additional Readings(扩展阅读) Learning Objectives Key Topics Section 1.1 What is Money? Section 1.1 What is Money? If you can actually count your money, then you are not really a rich man. -J. Paul Getty “如果你能数清你的钱,那还不算真正的富有” J. Paul Getty [保罗·盖蒂,1892—1976,石油怪杰,20世纪60年代世界首富。1957年美国《财富》杂志评出的世界首富] What is “Money”? “Money”, what is the money in the eye of people? What is the conception of money in the views of economics? 在大家的眼中,到底什么才是“金钱”? 1.1.2 Meaning of Money In general , money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context. Repayment:偿还 debt:债务 在一般情况下,货币是在任何形式或可核查的记录中,被普遍接受作为付款的商品和服务,并在一个特定的国家或社会经济背景下可以偿还的债务。 Imagine a world without using of money Barter (物物交换) Section 1.2 Functions of Money Section 1.2 Functions of Money " Whether money is shells, or rocks, or gold, or paper, it has four primary functions in any economy: as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, and a standard of deferred payment. Of the four functions, its function as a medium of exchange is what distinguishes money from other assets such as stocks, bonds, and houses.” asset:资产、财产 stock:股份、库存 bond:债券 无论是贝壳,还是岩石,还是黄金,或者是纸,货币在任何经济中都有四个主要功能:作为交换媒介,价值尺度,价值储藏手段,延期支付手段。四个标准中的交换媒介,可以使货币区别于其他资产,如股票、债券和房子的货币。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange In almost all market transactions in our economy, money in the form of currency or checks in a medium of exchange (交易媒介); it is used to pay for goods and services. currency:货币; 通用,流通,流传 checks :支票 在我们的经济中几乎所有的市场交易,货币是以货币或支票的形式作为交易媒介。它是用来支付商品和服务的。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange The use of money as a medium of exchange promotes economic efficiency by eliminating much of the time spent in exchanging goods and services. 货币作为交换媒介促进了经济效率的提高,消除了用于交换商品和服务的大部分时间。 To see why, let's look at a barter economy, one without money , in which goods and services are exchanged directly for other goods and services. barter:物物交换 看看为什么,让我们看一个没有货币的物物交换的经济,商品和服务直接用于交易其他商品和服务。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange The time spent trying to exchange goods or services is called a transaction cost. transaction cost:交易成本 试图交换商品或服务的时间被称为交易成本。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange In a barter economy, transaction costs are high because people have to satisfy a "double coincidence of wants “--- they have to find someone who has a good or services they want and who also wants the good or service they have to offer. 在一个以物为经济的交易中,交易成本很高,因为人们必须满足一个“双方需求的一致性”-他们必须找到一个拥有商品或服务的正是他们所需求的。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange Money promotes economic efficiency by eliminating much of the time spent, exchanging goods and services . It also promotes efficiency by allowing people to specialize in what they do best. 货币通过减少大部分用来交换商品和服务所需的时间,促进经济效益的提高。它也提高了效率,让人们专注于做他们最擅长的事情。 1.2.1 Medium of Exchange Money is therefore essential in an economy; it is a lubricant that allows the economy to run more smoothly by lowering transaction costs, thereby encouraging specialization and the division of labor. 因此,货币是经济中不可或缺的,它是一种润滑剂,可以通过降低交易成本,使经济运行更顺畅,从而鼓励专业化和劳动分工。 1.2.2 Unit of Account The second role of money is to provide a unit of account(价值尺度); that is, it is used to measure value in the economy. We measure the value of goods and services in terms of money, just as we measure weight in terms of pounds or distance in terms of miles. 货币的另一个角色是提供价值尺度,即在经济中用来衡量价值。我们用金钱来衡量商品和服务的价值,正如我们用磅衡量重量或用米衡量距离。 1.2.2 Unit of Account To see why this function is important, let's look again at a barter economy where money does not perform this function. 要知道为什么这个职能是很重要的,让我们再一次看看没有履行此功能的物物交换的经济。 1.2.2 Unit of Account If the economy has only three goods, say, peaches, economics lectures, and movies, then we need to know only three prices to tell us how to exchange one for another. 如果经济市场只有三种商品,桃子,经济学讲座和电影,那么我们需要知道的只有三个价格告诉我们如何交换。 the price of peaches in terms of economics lectures(that is, how many economics lectures you have to pay for a peach), the price of peaches terms of movies, and the price of economics lectures in terms of movies. 在经济上的价格,用讲座支付桃子的价格(即多少经济讲座能来支付桃子),用电影支付桃子的价格,用电影支付经济讲座。 1.2.2 Unit of Account If there were ten goods, we would need to know 45 prices in order to exchange one good for another: which 100 goods, we would need 4950 prices: and with 1000 goods 499500 prices. 如果有十种商品,我们需要知道45种价格,以用一种商品交换另一种商品;如果有100件商品,我们需要4950个价格;如果有1000件商品,那么对应499500的价格。 1.2.2 Unit of Account Imagine how hard it would be to shop in a supermarket with 1000 different items on its shelves;deciding whether chicken or fish is cheaper would be difficult if the price of a pound of fish were quoted as 4 pounds of butter and the price of a pound of fish were quoted as 8 pounds of tomatoes. 想象一下,在一家超市里有1000种不同的商品在货架上是多么的困难。比较鸡肉和鱼哪个更便宜是非常困难的,如果一磅鱼的价格是4磅的黄油,一磅鱼的价格是8磅的西红柿。 1.2.2 Unit of Account To make sure that you can compare the prices of all items, The solution to the problem is to introduce money into the economy and have all prices quoted in terms of units of that money, enabling us to quote the price of economics lectures. Peaches,and movies in terms of ,say,dollars. 前提是确保你能把所有项目的价格进行比较。解决问题的方法是将货币引入经济,把所有商品按单位货币进行标价,使我们能够将经济学讲座,桃子和电影的价格以美元标价。 1.2.2 Unit of Account To make sure that you can compare the prices of all items, The solution to the problem is to introduce money into the economy and have all prices quoted in terms of units of that money, enabling us to quote the price of economics lectures. Peaches , and movies in terms of ,say,dollars. 前提是确保你能把所有项目的价格进行比较。解决问题的方法是将货币引入经济,把所有商品按单位货币进行标价,使我们能够将经济学讲座,桃子和电影的价格以美元标价。 1.2.2 Unit of Account If there were only three goods in the economy, this would not be a great advantage over the barter system because we would still need three prices to conduct transactions. But for ten goods we now need ten prices: for 100goods, 100prices, and so on. 如果经济市场上只有三种商品,物物交换市场不占据优势,因为我们仍然需要三个价格进行交易。但对于十种商品,我们现在需要十种价格; 100种商品,100种价格等等。 1.2.2 Unit of Account We can see that using money as a unit of account reduces transaction costs in an economy by reducing the number of prices that need to be considered. The benefits of this function of money grow as the economy becomes more complex. 我们可以看到使用货币作为价值尺度,通过减少价格的数量的考虑降低了经济的交易成本。随着经济变得越来越复杂,这种货币功能的好处也越来越明显。 1.2.3 Store of Value Money also functions as a store of value(价值储藏手段); it is a repository of purchasing power over time. A store of value is used to save purchasing power from the time income is receive until the time it is spent. purchasing power:购买力 金钱也作为价值储存的功能,它是通过时间可以储藏购买力。价值贮藏手段是节省购买力从获得收入的时候直到积攒的收入被花掉。 1.2.3 Store of Value The function of money is useful because most of us do not want to spend out income immediately upon receiving it but rather prefer to wait until we have the time or the desire to shop. 货币的职能是有效的,因为我们大多数人不想一有收入就马上花光,但宁愿等到我们有时间或欲望去购物。 Money is not unique as a store of value be cause any asset , whether it be money, stocks, bonds, land, houses, art, or jewelry, can be used to store wealth. 货币在贮藏价值上不是独一无二的,因为它是可以是任何资产,无论是金钱、股票、债券、土地、房屋、艺术品,珠宝首饰都可以用来储存财富。 1.2.3 Store of Value Many such assets have advantages over money as a store of value: They often pay the owner a higher interest rate than money, experience price appreciation, and deliver services such as providing a roof over one's head. If these assets are a more desirable store of value than money, why do people hold money at all? interest rate:利率 price appreciation:价格升值 许多的资产都比货币作为价值储存的价值有优势:他们经常给予所有者比货币更高的利率,体验价格升值,如为人的头上提供只砖片瓦的服务。如果这些资产的贮藏价值比货币更为理想,为什么人们持有货币? 1.2.3 Store of Value The answer to this question relates to the important economic concept of liquidity, the relative ease and speed with which an asset can be converted into a medium of exchange. liquidity:流动性 这个问题的答案涉及到重要的经济概念,流动性*,资产可以被转换成交换媒介的相对容易和速度。 1.2.3 Store of Value Liquidity is highly desirable. Money is the most liquid asset of all ,because it is the medium of exchanged; it dose not have to be converted into anything else in order to make purchase. Other assets involve transaction costs when they are converted into money. 流动性是非常可取的。货币是所有的流动资产,因为它是交换的媒介,它不需要被转换成其他的东西,以便购买。其他资产涉及交易成本,当它们被转换成金钱。 1.2.3 Store of Value When you sell your house, for example, you have to pay a brokerage commission (usually 5 percent to 7 percent of the sale price), and if you need cash immediately to pay some pressing bills, you might have to settle for a lower price in order to sell the house quickly. brokerage commission:佣金、手续费 比如说,当你卖掉你的房子时,你必须支付一个佣金(通常为百分之5到百分之7的销售价格),如果你需要现金支付一些紧迫的账单,你可能不得不以较低的价格来快速销售房子。 1.2.3 Store of Value The fact that money is the most liquid asset, then, explains why people are willing to hold it even if it not the most attractive store of value. 事实上,金钱是最具流动性的资产,然后,解释了为什么人们愿意持有它,即使它不是最具吸引力的价值储存。 1.2.4 Standard of Deferred Payment An agreed measure that enables contracts to be written for future receipts and payments is called a standard of deferred payment(延期支付手段). 为了未来的收付,促成签订合同的一种协定度量标准称为延期支付手段。 If you borrow money to buy a house or if you save money to provide for retirement, your future commitment or future receipt will be agreed to in dollars and cents. Money is used as the standard for a deferred payment. 如果你借钱买房子,或者如果你为退休后进行存钱储蓄,你未来的还款业务和收款业务将以元、分形式标定。 货币扮演的延期付款的角色。 1.2.4 Standard of Deferred Payment using money as a standard of deferred payment is not entirely without risk because, inflation leads to unpredictable changes in the value of money. inflation:通货膨胀 将货币作为递延付款的标准并非完全没有风险,因为通货膨胀会使货币价值发生不可预测的变动。 1.2.4 Standard of Deferred Payment But, to the extent that borrowers and lenders anticipate inflation, its rate is reflected in the interest rates paid and received. 但是根据债务人和债权人对未来通货膨胀的预期,通货膨胀率反映在收付款的利率里。 Lenders in effect protect themselves by charging a higher interest rate, and borrowers, anticipating inflation, willingly pay the higher rate. 债权人通过收取较高的利率保护自己,而债务人由于预期到通货膨胀,愿意支付更高的利率。 本次课程结束!! BYE BYE

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