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An Introduction to British History and Culture English History Prehistoric England Roman Britain (43-410) The Anglo-Saxons and Vikings (450-1066) Normans and Plantagenets (1066-1272) Lancaster and York (1272-1485) The Tudors (1485-1603) The Stuarts (1603-1714) Order and Disorder (1714-1837) Victoria and Empire (1837-1910) Peace and War (1910-1945) Contemporary Britain (1945- ) Old Stone Age, 70,000—8000 BC Middle Stone Age , 8300—3500 BC New Stone Age , 3500—2500 BC Bronze Age, 2500—700 BC (Iberians) Iron Age, 700—100 BC (Celts) The Dawning of English History 150 BC—50 Official title United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland British Isles including Great Britain, the whole of Ireland, all the offshore islands isolated from Europe by the English Channel and the North Sea once perceived as being on the edge of the world The seas around Britain also acted as barriers against attempted invasions: The Armada, 1588; the French, 1805, Nazi Germany, 1940 Generally mild and temperate weather allows farming to flourish across the country North: less fertile land, wetter South: fertile land, drier Hunters and gatherers Old Stone Age (Paleolithic), 70,000—8000 BC Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic), 8300—3500 BC New Stone Age (Neolithic), 3500—2500 BC New Stone Age , 3500—2500 BC Stonehenge 史前巨石阵 a monumental circular setting of large standing stones surrounded by an earthwork The Celts (Iron Age, 700—100 BC) from north-western Europe, ancestors of the highland Scots, the Irish and Welsh Gaelic 盖尔语 : language of Celtic origin Chapter 2 Roman Britain Roman Invasion (55BC-410AD) British recorded history begins with Roman invasion. first landing in 55 B.C. led by Julius Caesar complete control over the land in 43 A.D. leaving in around 410 A.D. What is the meaning of B.C. and A.D.? BC stands for "before Christ" AD stands for the Latin phrase “anno domini” means "in the year of our Lord" The purpose of the BC / AD dating system to make the birth of Jesus Christ the dividing point of world history Roman Invasion (55 BC - 410 AD) First landing in 55 B.C. led by Julius Caesar Reasons the lure of treasures to punish the Celts because of the help they rendered their fellow tribesmen in Gaul Results failed because of weather withdraw with hostages and prisoners Roman Invasion (55 BC - 410 AD) 2. Complete control over the land in 43 A.D. Leader headed by the Emperor Claudius Reasons came as imperialists to exploit and govern by right of being the superior Roman Invasion (55BC-410 AD) Roman Soldiers Resistance to Roman Occupation For nearly 400 years Britain was under the Roman occupation, but it was never a total occupation. Roman troops often withdrew. Resistance: the Picts Two great walls to keep the Picts: Hadrian’s Wall Antonine Wall Roman Influence: The Romanisation of Britannia Roman Influence: The Romanisation of Britannia The Impact of Christianity The Celt’s Religion Polytheism (多神论) Animals, rivers, and lakes were also treated as gods. Roman Britain . Christian merchants and traders arrived in England in the 1st century A.D, but made little impact. In the 2nd century, Christianity slowly spread. In the late 6th century, Christianity was introduced widely in England. Christianity: belief in one godhead, The Celt’s Religion:belief in several gods After Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, Polytheism (多神论) monotheism (一神论) Anglo-Saxon period In the middle of the 5th century, Anglo-Saxons settled here. English people owe much of their tradition, language, physical heritage to them (tall, fair-haired). Viking invasion: by the 8th, the Danish began to invade England in a successful way until Alfred the Great defeated them. King Alfred the Great (r. 871-899 阿佛列大帝) He is often regarded as the first king of a united England. He defeated the Danes at battles. 28 29 32 33 The Norman Conquest After Edward died, Duke of Normandy---William I, was crowned in London, on Christmas Day 1066. Significance: A. A new dynasty, a new aristocracy B. A strong Norman government, feudal system C. The upper ranks of the clergy were Normanized and feudalized. 封建时代 1)William’s rule(1066-1087) A. strong monarchy was established B. French language was used in the court and upper classes C. Domesday Book: great survey of the realm in 1089 2) Henry Ⅱ’s reform (1154-1189) A. Established the Plantagenet Dynasty (1154-1485) B. replaced the feudal law with royal or common law, the jury of 12 sworn men 3) Magna Carta (the Great Charter) in 1215 A. signed by king John B. the basis of modern English constitution C. the upholding of individual rights against arbitrary government 4) the parliament in 1265 A. during Henry Ⅲ, Simon de Montfort called the first parliament B. commoners sat for the first time 5) the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453) A. between France and England, French won B. introduced the first standing armies in Western Europe C. bourgeoisie was pushed on a higher rang of social ladder D. fall of French language in England E. England and France was separate from each other entirely forever 6) The back death in 1348 A. spread by rat fleas B. killed 1.5 million out of the total 4 million people C. grain farming turned to sheep farming 7) Wat Tyler’s Uprising in 1381 A. in fighting against the Poll Tax in 1380 B. marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England 8) The war of the Roses A. between House of York (white rose) and House of Lancaster (red rose) B. Marked the end of middle ages and beginning of modern world 3. 走向现代英国 1)Henry Ⅷ (1509-1547) A. the Church of England separated from Roman Catholicism B. king of England became both the secular and religious world C. king became the real head of England as a nation state Mary I Catholic burning nearly three hundred Protestants at the stake losing Calais 2) Elizabeth Ⅰ (1558-1603) A. the last Tudor monarch, never got married for the good of the nation B. secure the church of England, compromise between RC and P C. destruction of Spanish Armada showed England’s superiority as a naval power Elisabeth I Protestant the Virgin Queen Spanish Armada Neutrality and compromise 3) The English Renaissance A. from the beginning of 16th century to the 17th century B. the greatest English humanist: James I 1603 - 1625 Charles I 1625 - 1649 Charles II 1660 - 1685 James II 1685 - 1688 William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694 Queen Anne 1702 - 1714 James I Charles II Plague (1665) Great Fire (1666) St. Paul's Cathedral by Sir Christopher Wren James II escaped to France in 1648, disguised as a girl Catholic persecution of the Protestants 4) The civil wars (1642-1651) A. parliamentary victory 1651 B. execution of Charles I 1649 C. Protectorate (1653-1659) Oliver Cromwell and his son 5) Restoration (1660) Charles returns with a big welcome and was crowned in April 1660, as the restoration of Stewart Dynasty 6)Glorious Revolution(1688) A. James Ⅱwas overthrown by parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William of Orange B. Bill of Rights, autocratic monarchy----constitutional monarchy C. marked the end of feudalism and the beginning of capitalism ★Britain came into being in 1707 with the Act of Union which united England and Scotland. 7)Whigs and Tories Whigs favored reform and Tories are monarchists. William III and Queen Mary II offered the English crown invaded England in 1688 8)Enclosure A. a significant rise during the Tudor period B. during 18-19th century, the Enclosure Acts by the parliament C. harms: Peasant Dispossessed of their land D. significance: better farming methods accumulation of capital abundant food cheap and mobile labor 19th century : 1) The Chartist Movement (1836—1848) 2) Colonial expansion Motivation: A. economical motivation; B. industrial revolution and search for new markets; C. Struggle for mastery; D. Maintaining order in profitable areas; E. The moral guardian. “The sun never sets” Victoria The British Empire the longest reign in English history the grandmother of Europe 20th century : 1. The Labor party 2. First world war 3. between the wars 4. Second world war 5. postwar Britain 6. joining the EEC (1973) 7. Thatcher and her era Thatcher and her era Queen Elizabeth II






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